How cannabis was first used and eventually migrated across the world
Tracing the roots of cannabis and its first uses
You smell it, you smoke it and you cook with it. But where did cannabis come from and how did this miraculous plant migrate across the world and leave such a psychedelic presence?
From Central Asia to Spain via Spain, Morocco and the Middle East, we followed the hazy clouds of smoke that followed the cannabis plant from its native roots to identify its origins and how many cultures. have integrated the plant into everyday life.
The history of cannabis closely follows migration patterns, conquests and trade routes and has seen varying degrees of acceptance and consumption throughout history. The plant is native to Central Asia and quickly spread around the world.
Prior to domestication, the presence of cannabis in Mongolia, southern Siberia, the Huang He River valley, the Hindu Kush mountains, South Asia and Afghanistan fluctuated with the movement of glaciers from the Pleistocene. Cannabis is a sun-loving plant and the cold, combined with the icy shadows of these glaciers, has kept cannabis from thriving.
One of the earliest documented uses of cannabis was hemp rope in the Czech Republic, which dates back to 2900 BC. The first documented use of cannabis as an anesthetic dates back to 4000 BC. The Pazyryk tribes of Siberia consumed cannabis seeds for their nutritional qualities and burned them during burial ceremonies, as evidenced by their presence in burial mounds dating back to 3000 BC. Yanghai tombs in the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, which dates back to 2,500 BC, have also been found to have contained mummified cannabis.
The first case of cannabis use is attributed to the Chinese herbalist, Emperor Shen Nung. Around 2700 BC. AD, he classified more than 365 medicinal herbs, many of which are still used today in the practices of oriental medicine. His cannabis documents show the plant as a remedy for rheumatism, malaria, gout, and more. Cannabis appeared in Korea and Japan through Neolithic China around 2000 BC.
The Scythians, Indo-European nomads, known to have cultivated cannabis for ritual and funeral purposes, introduced the plant to Iran and Anatolia between 2000 and 1400 BC by roaming the Altai mountains. These mountains then became part of the Silk Road, a vast and ancient network of trade routes that connected the eastern and western parts of civilization from the Korean Peninsula to the Mediterranean Sea. The Scythians participated in many social rituals involving cannabis which were documented by the Greek historian Herodotus. As the Silk Road officially began to take shape, cannabis was quickly introduced to Greece, Egypt and Africa. The tomb of Ramses II contained cannabis pollen and many mummies were found with traces of cannabinoids, indicating that the plant had been present since at least the 19th Egyptian dynasty.
The Scythians are also believed to be responsible for bringing cannabis to Russia and Ukraine, during various occupations. From 3000 BC. AD, the plant spread to Eastern Europe. Burnt cannabis seeds have been found in archaeological sites, from Finland to Bulgaria, and hemp seeds can be found in traditional Lithuanian and Polish recipes.
India has many long-standing traditions that involve the consumption of cannabis in the form of a drink called "bhang", a tea mixed with milk. There is documentation of people in India who smoked resin and Yogis smoking cannabis mixed with tobacco to increase the effectiveness of meditation. Cannabis is mentioned several times in Sanskrit Vedic poetry, having been described as an anxiety relieving herb. Since at least 1400 BC. AD, cannabis is considered sacred in Hindu culture.
Cannabis played an important role in Greco-Roman cultures as a source of fiber and intoxicants. In Pompeii, the city frozen by volcanic ash in AD 79, cannabis seeds were discovered in the ruins. Greek rhetorician Athenaeus noted that hemp was used to make ropes between AD 170-230, and Roman writer Lucilius cites hemp as a source of sails and webs.
artisanal processing of hemp for industrial fabrics
Cannabis arrived in Spain after the Moorish invasion in the 8th century and the Maroc remains one of the world's largest producers of hashish, a powerful concentrate of cannabis.
By the 13th century, hashish had become widely used for recreational and religious purposes in the Middle East as well, which ultimately led to a crackdown by the then governor of Cairo. Also by the 13th century, cannabis had been introduced to East Africa from Egypt and Ethiopia through traders.
The expansion of cannabis throughout Africa closely followed Muslim migration across the country, gradually moving to the Bantu speakers and then to the Zambezi Valley, where it had been used in 1531 when the Portuguese arrived in the region. South Africans have used cannabis, called "dagga", for at least 500 years.
Cannabis offered an important trading opportunity with the Dutch, the use of which dates back to at least the 1600s. It was also widely used by the Tswanas, Zulus, Sotho and Swazis at the time. Under British rule in the 1800s, Indian indentured servants living in South Africa widely used cannabis. Anthropologists from the Congo and the rainforest of Ituri have noted cannabis use among indigenous tribes. In West Africa, cannabis use was rare until World War II, when British and French soldiers stationed there introduced the plant.
The Spanish brought cannabis to the Americas in the mid-1500s, where it was cultivated on North American plantations for the manufacture of ropes, paper, and other fiber products. The settlers of Jamestown even imposed fines on those who did not grow hemp in the early 1600s. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both cultivated hemp.
Harvesting hemp in the 1800s
When the modern civilized world developed and the global capitalist system we know today was put in place, cannabis spread throughout the world, thanks to traders, missionaries, nomadic tribes and settlers. world leaders who have tried to leverage its value. Cannabis was widely accepted around the world until the early 1800s.
The Marijuana Ban Movement, A Propaganda Tale, Word Choice, and the "War on Drugs."
The first formal ban on cannabis use was enacted by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799, whose troops were introduced to weed during their conquest of Egypt and brought it back to France as spoils of war. Bonaparte feared that cannabis would soften his troops and forbid them to smoke or drink cannabis, imposing a three-month prison sentence for those who violated his order.
In the 1800s, the British, in an attempt to control unrest in colonized India, began restricting the production and consumption of cannabis and cast a negative light on its users by conducting an investigation which concluded that the use grass had led to madness. This investigation was subsequently criticized for its careless use of statistics and ultimately discredited, but the damaging effects of its negative perception persisted.
In the early 1900s, the attitude that prevailed in the United States towards cannabis took a turning point thanks to a combination of political, cultural and financial factors. U.S. law banning marijuana began to emerge at the state level, with a ban by Massachusetts in 1911.
Also, in the early 1900s, the first countries to ban cannabis completely were South Africa and Jamaica in 1911, followed by Canada, Great Britain and New Zealand in 1913.
In the early 1900s, cannabis users were primarily Mexican immigrants who arrived in the United States during the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, African-American jazz musicians in and around New Orleans, and immigrants and Caribbean bohemians north of New Orleans. The term used by Mexican immigrants at this time was "marihuana," a word that propagandists would later use to encourage cannabis prohibition.
In the 1920s, many states passed laws regulating marijuana as a poison, including Iowa, Nevada, Oregon, Oregon, Washington State, Arkansas, Nebraska, Louisiana and Colorado. When the alcohol prohibition was repealed in 1933, 30 other states had laws prohibiting the use of cannabis.
The divide between reality and perception of cannabis has been driven deeper into culture thanks to a concerted effort by media mogul William Randolph Hearst and Harry Anslinger, America's first drug czar, to cast a negative light on cannabis. Andrew Mellon, the United States Secretary of the Treasury, was Anslinger's boss and his wife's uncle. Mellon also had stakes in Mellon Bank, a major backer of the DuPont company, which was launching a line of synthetic papers with which industrial hemp paper would compete. Like Hearst, the DuPont Company, and Mellon by extension, had a personal interest in restricting access to cannabis-derived paper products and industrial hemp production.
During Anslinger's time as Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics in the US Treasury Department, he was known to publicly attack the character of cannabis users, including making racist and damaging remarks. He is often quoted as having said, "There are 100,000 marijuana smokers in the United States, and most are blacks, Hispanics, Filipinos and performers. Their satanic music, jazz and swing are the result. of the use of marijuana. This marijuana causes white women to have sex with negroes, performers and other people. "
Hearst has covered Anslinger's positions on the front pages of his newspapers, fueling fears of depravity, criminality and an influx of minorities threatening the delicate sensibilities of Americans.
By 1937, the American propaganda campaign had succeeded in integrating misinformation and paranoia into the fabric of conversation about cannabis around the world. The 1933 propaganda film Reefer Madness illustrates the level of inaccuracies surrounding the perception of cannabis at the time, portraying cannabis smokers as wild and out of control, almost animistic in their behavior.
Against the recommendation of the American Medical Association, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed on October 2 of the same year. In the decades that followed, tougher laws, like the Boggs Act of 1951, resulted in stiffer penalties for cannabis offenses.
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was repealed in 1969, but the following year President Richard Nixon enacted the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The CSA considered cannabis to have "no accepted medical use" and included additional restrictions that classified cannabis as a Class 1 drug. Classification of cannabis as a Class 1 drug significantly reduces medical and scientific research. . In 1971, President Nixon declared war on drugs, then created the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and, in 1972, the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse.
In 1982, President Reagan renewed the call for a "war on drugs," which emphasized a strict "zero tolerance policy" that led to prison overcrowding across the country and creation of laws on minimum sentences. Since its inception in 1971, the War on Drugs has cost the United States over $ 1 trillion and is considered an economic and criminal failure.
Perceptions of cannabis continue to change, with polls from 2015 showing the majority of US citizens support medical marijuana. While local efforts to legalize cannabis have been successful in countries like the United States, Uruguay, Canada, and Australia, it remains illegal in most countries around the world.
The End of the Cannabis Ban, A Brief History of How Science Untangles the Making of Misguided Laws
It took the work of many cannabis legalization advocates, scientists, doctors, researchers and politicians to pave the way for a more open approach to cannabis policy - and the battle is not over. Although the United States was in the limelight after the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, acceptance of cannabis worldwide ranged from legal hashish in India to restricted access in China and the Middle East. East.
In 1942, American hemp production received a boost when President Franklin Roosevelt, by executive order, authorized the cultivation of industrial hemp for the production of canvas, ropes and oil in support of World War II. . After the war, however, the order was canceled and all hemp cultivation ended with the order for the farmers to plow the remaining fields.
In 1946, researchers first discovered the distinct properties of individual cannabinoids, learning that mice given THC showed signs of psychotropic activity while mice given doher CBD had none.
turned to cannabis to relieve the long-lasting pain directly associated with injuries sustained while playing collision sport at a professional level.
Ricky Williams, ex-NFL MP and cannabis advocate, is one of the loudest NFL retirees in the NFL pro-cannabis community. “I knew and felt the ways that cannabis helped and improved my well-being in so many ways - physically, emotionally, psychologically, spiritually and creatively,” said Williams.
The alternative to using cannabis treatments is a relief for athletes who have experienced pain long after the end of their playing days. Prescription opioids are currently the primary treatment option for the management of athletic pain. Opioid-based medications have been shown to be ineffective when it comes to chronic, long-lasting pain and carry serious long-term risks that include worsening pain, addiction, withdrawal, and fatal overdoses . In a study commissioned by ESPN, one of the key findings found that 52% of retired gamers used prescription pain relievers during their careers, and 71% admitted to abusing these medications during their careers. play days.
"This pain will never go away. My body is damaged," said Eugene Monroe, formerly of the Baltimore Ravens. Monroe has since managed to treat her pain with cannabis. "I've got to get there somehow. Dealing with it with pills was killing me slowly. Now I'm able to function and be extremely efficient figuring out how to use different formulations of cannabis."
The frequency with which professional athletes are prescribed opioid-based medications and the growing concern about opioid-related overdoses and deaths in athletes (and people in general) as well as the ability of cannabis to provide relief pain and reduced anxiety have led the commissioners of some of the more well-known professional sports leagues to seriously consider the use of cannabis for the well-being of their players.
You don't have to be a pro to recover like any other
And it's not just professional athletes looking for safer and more effective recovery methods. Any athlete or anyone with an active lifestyle can benefit from these types of alternative treatments. Regardless of the type of activity, cannabis can help athletes and active people (weekend warriors, cyclists, hiking and yoga enthusiasts) protect themselves from various injuries and recover.
Infographic Inflammation Site Weed Maps
The injuries that can be treated with cannabis vary from minor to severe, depending on the activity and the athlete, but the most common are:
Swollen / sore muscles
Repetitive head trauma
Cannabis contains compounds called "phytocannabinoids" which are very similar to compounds produced by the human body called "endocannabinoids". Cannabinoids in cannabis interact with receptors in our body to help establish and maintain homeostasis, or balance. These same receptors, when stimulated by the cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, can help reduce a myriad of injuries and illnesses. The most common medicinal benefits of cannabis include:
Reduction of inflammation
Head trauma / neuroprotection
Healing of wounds and bones
It's a long time, but amateur athletes living in states where cannabis is legal can now resort to cannabis treatments. Athletes and active adults can include cannabis products in their training programs and recovery treatments to support their long-term well-being.
There are a number of products that use both THC and CBD in various forms and varieties. The emergence of CBD products has opened the door for athletes who want to avoid the intoxicating effects of THC. The most common types of products that are just CBD products are:
· Hot topics
These products make it easy for people to use the different compounds in cannabis for efficient and non-invasive recovery. Whether you're relieving sore muscles after a long run or re-educating your body after a serious injury, cannabis helps you play harder, heal faster, and last longer.
Cannabis for pediatric patients
How the development of endocannabinoid systems synchronizes with medical compounds found in cannabis plants
The use of cannabis to treat illnesses is nothing new. In fact, humans have used the plant's therapeutic properties for hundreds of years. But when it comes to treating children with cannabis, old stigmas and unfamiliarity can make parents uncomfortable with the idea. This is why there is a need to better understand how cannabis works medically.
Here, we take a look at how cannabis is used in pediatrics without judgment or stigma. But first, a quick understanding of the science behind cannabis.
The medicinal compounds in the cannabis plant interact with a complex system in the brain and body called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). ECS is a signaling system responsible for maintaining the balance of chemical messages that are sent between our cells. The human body produces compounds called endocannabinoids, which are "cannabis-like" molecules that closely resemble the cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. Endocannabinoids work to maintain homeostasis - the balance - of our cells. When there is an imbalance in these compounds, disease can result. We've only known about ECS since 1988, but recent research allows us to understand the crucial role it plays in disorders that have not been well understood or treated effectively before.
A growing body of evidence indicates that children with epilepsy, autism, and other psychiatric illnesses experience dysfunction within their ECS. When this system is not functioning properly, chemical messages in the brain are not balanced and this imbalance is expressed in seizures, abnormal behaviors and atypical thought processes.
Studies have shown that a healthy and functioning endocannabinoid system is necessary for healthy brain development. During adolescence, the developing brain is very vulnerable. Interference with the natural changes that lead to a healthy adult brain can dramatically alter brain maturation. Research has indicated that physically healthy adolescents who consume high doses of THC chronically are at risk. Research has shown that these otherwise healthy adolescents were at increased risk for problems with executive function, impulsivity, memory impairment, disturbances in attention, problems with decision making as well. than an overall lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. In order for the endocannabinoid system to progress properly and contribute to the development of a healthy, mature adult brain, minors who are otherwise healthy should avoid THC and cannabis.
What about children who are not doing well medically? More research is needed to establish the long-term effects of cannabis use in minors who are not doing well medically. What we do know is that the cannabis plant gives us cannabidiol, also known as CBD. CBD is a compound that is not intoxicating and has enormous medicinal value with its anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-anxiety, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Cannabis can be cultivated with high amounts of CBD and very low amounts of THC, so-called "CBD rich" strains. There is still a smallamount of THC in these strains, but the overall experience is dominated by the effects of CBD. It's important to note that while there are no long-term studies of CBD, people who treat children with CBD have not reported any negative effects. In fact, doctors who use CBD for treatment see children who previously had a very poor prognosis with uncontrolled seizures, developmental delays, and cognitive dysfunctions developing developmentally rather than regressing. Many of them are able to stop using pharmaceutical drugs which may not have worked and which usually cause unwanted or unwanted side effects.
Cannabis for pediatric epilepsy
The burden of epilepsy and the negative impact on the quality of life of people with this neurological disorder has sparked a movement led by parents who advocate the consumption of cannabis rich in CBD. Scientists have responded by focusing on research into how ECS might be a treatment target for these patients. There is scientific evidence to suggest that people with epilepsy may suffer from endocannabinoid deficiency, which leads to a condition where the flow of neurotransmitters in the brain is overly excited, causing abnormal firing of brain cells. Evidence also points to significant neurological inflammation in the brain in crisis. CBD decreases this over-arousal and is a powerful anti-inflammatory. In most cases, the CBD treatment used is cannabis oil administered under the tongue, swallowed through the mouth or through a gastrostomy tube.
Cannabis for pediatric autism
The top three most difficult symptoms for families of children with autism are communication difficulties, repetitive behaviors, and social challenges, including temper tantrums and self-injurious behaviors. Although the FDA has approved two drugs, both antipsychotics, to treat the irritability associated with autism, they have unwanted side effects and may not be effective as a treatment, leaving many families without a solution.
ECS regulates emotional responses, including anxiety, behavioral responsiveness to context, social interaction, and immune system function - all functions affected by autism. Preliminary data links autism to CTS disability. Many autistic children find better communication, less repetitive behaviors, less anxiety, and better social interaction with the use of cannabis oil.
Cannabis for pediatric cancer
Parents are often looking for cannabis-based medications to help their children relieve symptoms of unwanted side effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In some cases, after learning that cancer treatment isn't working, parents are desperate to find a cure.
Animal studies have shown that cannabinoids inhibit the growth of tumors, cause cancer cells to suicide (apoptosis), inhibit metastasis, and inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in tumors. Cannabinoids have also been shown to enhance the effects of certain chemotherapy agents. Only two clinical trials have been conducted in humans, both in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive brain tumor. Both studies reported benefits with cannabis oil which included both THC and CBD. Cannabis is proving to be a safe option in these very sick children and there are many cases of patients enjoying a better quality of life.
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Reduction of anxiety
Rehabilitation and rehabilitation
Williams' personal history of substituting pharmaceuticals for cannabis is supported by research which reveals that the intoxicating phytocannabinoid Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a potent anti-inflammatory with anti-inflammatory power. is 20 times that of aspirin and double the steroid hydrocortisone.
Cannabidiol (CBD), the second largest cannabinoid in the cannabis flower, is non-toxic and has several medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic.
When THC and CBD are used together, their combined effects work synergistically to provide increased benefits.
Take less downtime with cannabis products
Implementing policy changes to allow the use of cannabis treatments in professional leagues may take
In 1964, Israeli researcher Raphael Mechoulam (with the Weizmann Institute) was the first to identify and synthesize tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in marijuana. The discovery of Mechaloum paved the way for increased interest in the medical uses of cannabis and the eventual discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the early 1990s.
The medical use of marijuana began to gain momentum as California became the first state to legalize it in 1996, followed soon after by Alaska, Oregon and Washington in 1998. Maine followed suit. Next year.
As the reform of medical marijuana proved increasingly popular in more and more pockets in the United States of America, the public perception of cannabis began to change dramatically. Starting in the 1990s, there was a dramatic reversal in the approval rating of cannabis legalization - and it wasn't just among young people. For every age group, opinion about ending marijuana prohibition has improved dramatically.
Americans were not only expressing their new openness to legalizing cannabis in surveys. Voter-led voting initiatives have been the backbone of the marijuana movement. As perceptions of the plant shifted from medicine to medicine, a wave of policy change that even most activists could not have foreseen at some point swept through the country, overthrowing nearly 80 years of harmful and misguided legislation.
Although California voters paved the way for patients across the country by adopting medical legalization in 1996, it was the Coloradans who took the next step in 2012 by adopting recreational cannabis legalization, followed soon after by the Washington State. As of 2017, eight states and Washington, D.C. had legalized adult marijuana and started collecting tax revenues on the cultivation and sale of cannabis products.
Internationally, Uruguay became the first country to legalize recreational use in 2013. Canada's recreational cannabis program is expected to be in full swing in 2018. Elsewhere in the world, Catalonia, Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Spain, Costa Rica and Peru allow some form of cannabis use by their citizens.
The expanded scope of cannabis legalization opens the door to more research, regulation and reform. With more science applied in the cannabis industry and less influence in the black market, the future of the plant looks greener than ever.
Cannabis as a new sports medicine
Although sports seasons begin and end, the world of sports never ends. Every day, around the world, a basketball team practices with their three pointers, prospects spend countless hours in the weight room, friends get together for a game of soccer or someone else's. trains for his first marathon.
Whether you are a professional athlete, an avid sports fan hoping for a championship season or the weekend warrior who soars to the race track, physical excellence, superb team dynamics and the thrill of competition speaks to us all.
Another universal truth in the world of sports and athletics: injuries.
It is not a question of whether you are going to suffer an injury, it is a question of time. When faced with an injury, a good recovery plan is crucial. Athletes, whether professional or amateur, need treatments that allow them to recover quickly, efficiently and with the fewest unwanted side effects. More than ever, there is awareness of the risks of competition and the long-term effects of concussions, damaged nervous systems, bone damage, arthritis and tears in muscle tissue.
The advent of cannabis as a new sports medicine has provided an alternative for athletes at all levels of competition.
Ancestral medicine for modern professionals
In July 2017, the National Football League (NFL) made headlines when it expressed interest in studying the potential use of cannabis as a pain treatment for its players. The announcement came after the players' union, the NFL Players Association (NFLPA), already undertook its own independent study into cannabis-related research.
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